References




Websites

  1. http://www.alma.matrix.msu.edu/up-content/upload/2010/02/ajami.introduction.fallau.pdf-window.int Wara Alma Website
  2. http://www.njas.helsinki.fi/pdf-files/vol14 num3/olateju.pdf
  3. http://www.scribd.com/doc/30404764/islam/islam-and-its-impact-in-yoruba-western-nigeria
  4. http://www.christianitystorytimeline.com/live_events/more/crowther.shtml/purpose
  5. http://www.english/turcebilgi.com/talking+drum
  6. http://www.webspace.ship.edu/igboer/morphology/html (Website owner: Dr.C .George Boeree)
  7. http://www.phoneox.ac.uk/jcoleman/phonology/html
  8. http://www.bookrags.com/tandf/praise-poetry-yoruba-ork-lf/
  9. http://www.yo.wikipedia.org/wiki/%c3%8cjc3%
  10. http://www.family.jrank.org/pages/1774/Yoruba-Families-Steps-That-Lead-Marriage.html
  11. http://www.uga.edu/aflang/yoruba/oduduwa.html
  12. http://www.yoruba.org/language.html
  13. http://www.citilink.com/orboomie/nigeria/language/html
  14. http://www.uw.edu/ufl/yoruba/oduduwa/html
  15. http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu13seoe.html
  16. http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Mauritania-to-Nigeria/Yoruba.html
  17. http://www.africa.uga.edu/Yoruba/grammar.html
  18. http://www.scribd.com/doc/5967313/grammaryoruba
  19. http://www.mylanguage.org/yoruba_phrases.php
  20. http://www.mockingbird.creighton.edu/english/fajardo/teaching/english/phonology/html
  21. http://www.sil.org/linguistics/Glossaryoflinguisticsterms/whatisphonology.html
  22. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en8q=define:phonology
  23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/yoruba_language
  24. http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/oyo-empire
  25. http://www.lucy.uk.ac.uk/yoruba/y+2.html=yorubahistory
  26. http://www.onwar.com/aced/nation/inil/ibadan/fivestafricanwar1877.html
  27. http://www.motherlandnigeria.com/picture/html
  28. http://www.oyostate.gov.ng/tourism-guide
  29. http://www.assatashakur.org/forum/rbg-tube/25723-afrikan-martial-arts-comprehensive-overview.html
  30. http://www.abibimikasa.com/market/index.php?main=page=product_info&products_id=34
  31. http//www.google.com/search?p=yoruba+hairstyles&hl=enprmd=invsb&tbm
  32. http://www.google.com/search?p=yoruba+tribalmarks&hl=enprmd=invsb&tbm
  33. http://www.irokotheatre.org.uk/heritage/aficana.html#instruments
  34. http://www.africanimports.com
  35. http://www.uni.edu/gai/nigeria/lesson/instruments (by Natasha Cooper)
  36. http://www.freemaninstitute.com/nigeria.html
  37. http://www.yeyeolade.wordpress.com/category/yoruba
  38. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-eQqdms-H14/TD9Tbzl
  39. http://www.google.com/imgre?imgurl=http://farml.static.flick.com/bl/1845152412/_5aa5cc2bdl.jpg&imgrefurl.http
  40. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13261.gif
  41. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13263.gif
  42. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13264.gif
  43. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13271.gif
  44. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13272.gif
  45. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13275.gif
  46. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13279.gif
  47. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13280.gif
  48. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13283.gif
  49. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13287.gif
  50. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13289.gif
  51. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Wildlife_GIFS/safari_13290.gif



Books/Journals/Newspapers and Magazines

  1. Baldi, Selgio “On Arabic- Loans on Yoruba”: paper presented at the Annual Conference on African Linguistics; 26th March, 1995: Los-Angeles, California, Pp.24-26.
  2. Ọlatẹju, Adeṣọla (2005) “The Yoruba Animal Metaphors: Analysis and Interpretation” (in) Nordic Journal of African Studies, 14(3); pp.368-383.
  3. Delano, I. O. (1965) A Modern Yoruba Grammar; London: Thomas Nelson & Sons.
  4. Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966) A Grammar of Yoruba; London: Cambridge University Press. Pp.20-40
  5. Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1967) A Short Yoruba Grammar; Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Works. Pp. 40-54.
  6. Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1990) Fonoloji ati Girama Yoruba; Ibadan: University Press. Pp. 25-45.
  7. Akinjọgbin, I. A.;Ayandele, E.A.; (1980) “Yorubaland up to 1800” (in) Ikime Obaro (eds) Groundwork of Nigeria History; Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books. Pp. 124-137.
  8. Salami, Kehinde Y; “The Democratic Structure of Yoruba Political Cultural Heritage” (in) Journal of Pan-African Studies, vol.1, no.6, December, 2006.
  9. Alaba, Olugboyega; “Sexuality in Yoruba Culture”; Understanding Human Sexuality Seminar at African Regional Sexuality Resource Center, Lagos. July 29, 2004.
  10. Ajibade, George O. “Abiku” (in) Journal of African Music and Popular Culture; Monday, 28th November, 2003.
  11. Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology and Regent of University of California, Berkeley (2004) “Yoruba Arts and Culture” (eds) Nicole Mullen; pp. 10-25.
  12. Eades, J.S. (1980) The Yoruba Today: Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, UK. Pp.15-35.
  13. Olusanya, G.O. (1966) Yoruba Culture; University of Ife & University of London Press Ltd; London. Pp. 28-42.
  14. Ashiwaju, Anthony I. (1976) Western Yoruba Land under European Rule 1889-1945; Western Printing Services Ltd, Bristol. Pp.10-18.
  15. Crowther, Samuel A. (1852) The Grammar of Yoruba. www.google.com.
  16. Rogets International Thesaurus, Third Edition (1962); Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New-York.
  17. Brooks, B. S., Pinson, J.K., and Wilson, J.G. (2003) Working with Words-A Handbook for Media Writers and Editors, fifth edition; Bedford/St.Martin’s: Boston.
  18. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, (2003); Merriam Webster Incorporated: Springfield, MA, USA.
  19. A Dictionary of Yoruba Language (1991); University Press Plc: Ibadan, Nigeria.
  20. Kolln, Martha (1994) Understanding English Grammar; Fourth Edition; Macmillan Publishing Company: Needham, MA, USA.
  21. Webster New Pocket Style Guide, (Ed, 1997) John A. Haslem, Jr.; Wiley Publishing: Cleveland, Ohio.
  22. Dictionary of Grammar (1994); Claremont Books, London: Geddes & Grosset: New Lanark, Scotland, UK.
  23. Lady Ademọla (2002) African Proverbs; Bookcraft Ltd: Ibadan, Nigeria.
  24. Fafunwa, Babs A.; A History of Education in Nigeria; London: George Allen & Unwin, 1974, p.99
  25. Sherrow, Victoria; Encyclopedia of Hair- A Cultural History, Westport: Greenwood Press, CT, USA, P.411.



Photos with Permission/Credit

Permission to use the following photographs by various organizations and individuals is gratefully appreciated.

  1. Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology and Regent of University of California at Berkeley:
    Pp.47, 52,53,54,54, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 79,  80 and 83.
  2. AfricaImports: New-Jersey, USA.
    Pp. 53, 55, 61, 62, and 95.
  3. Iroko Theatre Company; London, UK.
    Pp.88, 89, 90, 94, and 95.
  4. The Freeman Institute: Gambril, Maryland, USA.
    Pp.9 and 70
  5. African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA:
    Pp. 114, 115 and 116.
  6. Dr. Fidel Fajardo-Acosta
    P.12. HVT.



Maps


Urhobo Historical Society-The Provider

  1. Nigerian Map 2: showing Western Nigeria as of 1954. Source: Willink Minority Commission-Nigeria (1957-1958). http://www.waado.org/nigerdelta/maps/willink_commission/willink_commission_western.html
  2. Nigerian Map 3: showing parts of Yoruba Territories lost to Northern Region in 1946. Source: Willink Minority Commission, Nigeria (1957-1958).
    http://www.waado.org/nigerdelta/maps/willink_commission/willink_commission_northernyoruba.html.
  3. Nigerian Map 4: showing Linguistic groups of (principal languages in Nigeria). Source: Learn NC, a University of North Carolina, web designed Education Resource Program for K -12 Classroom Instructors and Teachers.
    http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multi-media/8819



Illustrations

  1. Old Ọyọ Empire Political and Administrative Illustration. Source: Website of Ọba Lamidi Ọlayiwọla Atanda Adeyẹmi, 111; The Alaafin of Ọyọ. (With thanks, Kabiyesi).
    http://www.alaafin-oyo.org/main/alaafin/thecommunity/speeches/48-lest-history-laughs-at-us